The Institute of Contemporary History was founded in 1990 to establish an institution within the Czech Academy of Sciences for independent research into post-1938 Czech and Czechoslovak history. Currently, it is a leading coordinator of research and publication in the field of political as well as social and economic history of the periods of Nazi occupation, the communist dominance and the democratic transformation. Its central projects include the Oral History Centre, the Prague Spring 1968, the History of Sciences research, 1989 Democratic Revolution or the Post-Communist Transformation. Since 1993 the Institute has published the field academic journal Soudobé dějiny (Contemporary History).
Working Group on Parliaments in Transition was set up at the Institute of Contemporary History in 2012 as an outcome of a three-year research project on the history of the last Czechoslovak parliament (The Federal Assembly 1989-1992: The Emancipation of a Legislature). The team plans to explore other periods of transformations of Czechoslovak parliaments such as 1945-1948, the socialist dictatorship, the Prague Spring, but also the shifts in the Czech, Slovak and Czechoslovak understandings of parliamentarianism throughout the period in the international context.